Sphagnum mosses are the amazingly multi-coloured living carpets of moss found in wet places like peat bogs, marshland, heath and moorland. When seen up close, they are very beautiful, but they also play a very important role in the creation of peat bogs: they hold water in their spongy forms long after the surrounding soil has dried out. In this way, they provide essential nutrients to the soil and help to prevent the decay of dead plant material which gets compressed over hundreds of years to form peat.
There are at least ten species of Sphagnum moss in the UK, which are very difficult to tell apart. These species range in colour from red and pink, to orange and green. Sphagnum moss plants are very small, but they grow together in close proximity forming spongy carpets; ‘hummocks’ are even created when the mosses grow together to form large mounds up to a metre high.
Height: approximately 5cm for an individual plant, but hummocks can be as tall as 1m
When to see
January – December
Sphagnum mosses can soak up more than eight times their own weight in water.